Papers

Treaty with France

La Grande Paix de Montréal / Great Peace of Montreal, 1701

Treaties with the United States Government

The Federal Removal Treaty
Dr. Vizenor suggests readers  investigate the 1867 Treaty, the Federal Removal Treaty, of which he wrote: “the original treaty that concocted the reservation conked out at the very start, a party pact delusion and greedy course to the white pine.” [Treaty Shirts]

The Nelson Act of 1889

Indian Reorganizational Act / Wheeler-Howard Act, 1934

Why Treaties Matter
“Today, treaties continue to affirm the inherent sovereignty of American Indian nations. Tribal governments maintain nation-to-nation relationships with the United States government. Tribal nations manage lands, resources, and economies, protect people, and build more secure futures for generations to come.” [From treatiesmatter.org, a joint effort of the Indian Affairs Council of the State of Minnesota,  Minnesota Humanities Center, and the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian]

WER, House, 1946

White Earth Reservation, 1946. Courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society, by Monroe P. Killy.

White Earth Nation Constitution

The Constitution of the White Earth Nation
[Courtesy of the Department of American Indian Studies at the University of Minnesota, Duluth.]

A Statement by Gerald Vizenor

Constitutional Reform

Gerald Vizenor with Erma Vizenor, Chairwoman of the White Earth Nation, at a conference on the Constitution of the White Earth Constitution, 2010.

Gerald Vizenor with Erma Vizenor, Chairwoman of the White Earth Nation, at a conference on the Constitution of the White Earth Constitution, 2010.

Newspapers

The Progress  (founded 1886)
The Tomahawk (succeeded The Progress)
Read more issues at Minnesota Digital Newspaper Hub

“Clement Hudon Beaulieu and Elizabeth Farling raised ten children and were removed by the federal government from Old Crow Wing to the new White Earth Reservation. Augustus Hudon Beaulieu, the firstborn, founded and was publisher of the Progress, and later the Tomahawk, the first weekly newspapers published on the reservation. Clement Hudon Beaulieu, the eighth child and namesake of his father, became a priest in the Episcopal Church. Charles Hudon Beaulieu served in the Civil War and was promoted from private to captain in the Ninth Minnesota Volunteers.” [Blue Ravens]

"The Tomahawk" Press Room, Theodore Hudon Beaulieu, editor, is on the left. Augustus Hudon Beaulieu, publisher, is on the right. Augustus Beaulieu founded "The Progress" (White Earth's first weekly newspaper) in 1886. It later became "The Tomahawk." The Indian Agent at White Earth initially confiscated the printing press of "The Progress," accusing Augustus Beaulieu of having the intention of "breaking down the influence of the United States Indian Agent with the Indians." This censure was overturned in US Federal Court. Printing resumed in 1887. (Information courtesy of Gerald Vizenor, quote from "Blue Ravens")

“The Tomahawk” Press Room. Photograph taken by Robert G. Beaulieu. Theodore Hudon Beaulieu, editor, is on the left. Augustus Hudon Beaulieu, publisher, is on the right. Augustus Beaulieu founded “The Progress” (White Earth’s first weekly newspaper) in 1886. It later became “The Tomahawk.” The Indian Agent at White Earth initially confiscated the printing press of “The Progress,” accusing Augustus Beaulieu of having the intention of “breaking down the influence of the United States Indian Agent with the Indians.” This censure was overturned in US Federal Court. Printing resumed in 1887. Image courtesy of the Minnesota Historical Society.

Anishinaabeg Today

Articles by Gerald Vizenor, for the Minneapolis Tribune

On the suicide of 13-year-old Dane White (Dakota)

On Senator Walter Mondale’s response to White’s suicide

On the death and funeral rights of John Ka Ka Geesik

for Anishinaabeg Today

On the White Earth Land Recovery Project, “Obscure Land Recovery

Literary Papers and Manuscripts of Gerald Vizenor

Amherst College

The Bancroft Library

The Beinecke Library

Minnesota Historical Society